Best Representative Image of an Outcome.
During the analysis of sediments collected from Salwa beach in Doha, Qatar, Dr. Rashmi Fotedar a Lead PI from the Ministry of Environment and his team isolated a novel ochratoxin (group of mycotoxins) producing fungal species for the first time in literature through their award active project “Mapping the Microbial Diversity in the Arabian Gulf Surrounding Qatar using Genomics, Metagenomics and Culturing Approaches” (NPRP 6 - 647 - 1 – 127) . They named this species as Aspergillus Salwaense sp. nov. Aspergillus species are important as they can produce several mycotoxins which are known to have teratogenic, neurotoxic, genotoxic, immunotoxic, and nephrotoxic properties. The results of this study showed that Qatari marine sediments could harbor a variety of yet to be discovered novel fungal species. The image shows the conidiophores with the arrangement of conidia of this novel species of Aspergillus.
Engine performance is closely related to combustion of fuel, which in turn depends on the spray process that quickly converts liquid fuel into small droplets with a size roughly the thickness of a human hair. This picture demonstrates the relevance of fuel spray research at TAMUQ in a real life application. Experimental studies like this one will greatly help the scientific community to develop a successful predictive model for sprays. The fuel spray image was taken by Dr. Kannaiyan a PI in the active project “In-depth Characterization of Spray and Combustion Performance of Alternative Jet Fuels at Gas Turbine Combustor Conditions” (NPRP 7 - 1449 - 2 – 523) lead by Dr. Reza Sadr, using a high speed camera operating at 20,000 images per second, with an exposure time of one-hundredth of a blink of an eye, to capture the spray dynamics.
In this image Dr. Moahmed Elrayess and his team from Anti-Doping Lab showed for the first time that number of differentiated adipocytes from fat stem cells-derived from subcutaneous adipose tissue of a morbidly obese subjects depends on their insulin sensitivity and predisposition to type 2 diabetes through the active project titled “The role of preadipocyte differentiation in site-specific adipocyte dysfunction and development of obesity-induced insulin resistance” (NPRP 6 - 235 - 1 – 048). This is very important finding as number of differentiated adipocytes reflects lipid storage capacity where impairment of this capacity leads to ectopic fat deposition on the liver, kidney and heart. Studying the ability of these fat stem to give rise to fat cells (full of red fat droplets shown in this image) will help us understand diabetes and potentially find a defense mechanism against its manifestations.
The team led by Prof. Perla Balbuena through their active project “Analysis and Design of Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries” (NPRP 7 - 162 - 2 – 077) report the design and analysis of a promising new framework allotrope of silicon by mean of advanced computer simulations. The image is a perspective view of this new material which may has a potential contribution for batteries field. This is an Illustration by Dr. Marzouk of ions travelling through channels in the newly discovered form of silicon, during the charge and discharge of the battery. The electronic structure analysis reveals that it is a stable host for Na and Li ions reaching a specific capacity up to 314 mAh/g. The main advantage of this allotrope is the preservation of its periodicity during the charging/discharging cycles of the battery which might induce a longer lifetime.
Due to non-invasive nature of nanotechnology based devices for healthcare applications, it is getting attention from all domains of science and engineering. The research team led by Dr. Abbasi through the award active project “Numerical Analysis and In-vitro Demonstrator of Nano-scale Communication Networks for Healthcare Monitoring Applications (nano-Health)” (NPRP 7 - 125 - 2 – 061) are looking at the connectivity of the nano-devices to conduct complex tasks lead to the proposal of the nano-networks, followed by the concept of nano-communication, which describes how these devices communicate with each other. Figure shows an envisioned nano-technology based healthcare system, where multiple nano-devices are placed either on or inside the body can perform various health related tasks, for example, implanted nano-sensors can sense different vital body signal including blood oxygen levels, cell temperature for diagnosis and treatment of various disease.
The team led by Dr. Michel Louge through the active project “Microbial stabilization of mobile dunes for infrastructure protection and environmental preservation” (NPRP 6 - 059 - 2 – 023) have recorded real-time evaporation from a sand model in a laboratory based CT scanner as illustrated by Dr. Soling a PI in the research team. It is the first time this has been achieved in an in-house setup. Their results reveal a strong correlation between the structure of the liquid in the porous media and the vapor pressure above the sand. The illustration shows the real-time 3D image of the evaporation process (front) which will provide insight on the mechanisms of the migration of Chris (the dune in the back). Desertification is a real challenge in urban arid areas of the globe, and the ultimate goal of the project is to address this challenge. by stabilizing the dunes.
The active project led by Dr. Guo titled “Investigation of Surface Soiling by Airborne Particles and Its Impact on Photovoltaic Power Generation” (NPRP 7 - 987 - 2 – 372) will fill the knowledge gaps in quantification of surface soiling by airborne particles, its effect on performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems, and factors affecting surface soiling. The image shows the research outcome from Texas A&M University. Dust and weather conditions affect photovoltaic (PV) solar power generation. Understanding the relationship is essential for assessing economics of solar energy, and for optimal deployment and operation of PV solar power plants. This research project is the first to produce such data for Qatar, and has attracted attention from researchers around the world, where PV soiling caused by dust is a concern.
The completed project led by Dr. Pence titled “New mathematical models for the large strain swelling response of biological tissue” (NPRP 4 - 1138 - 1 – 178) uses mathematical modeling methods to simulate the swelling process in soft tissues so as to better understand its detailed progression. Such knowledge can help to devise new and effective medical treatments. Current simulation methods for the mechanical behavior of soft tissue are quite accurate when the swelling is small. However, these methods lose their accuracy when the swelling is large. Their work addresses this critical need by providing fundamentally new procedures. The image shows human windpipe swelling simulation and prediction during allergy attack.
Implantable medical devices are getting interest all around the world, only in USA approximately 300,000 of these devices are implanted every year. The user acceptance and growing use of implants in daily life activities in addition to healthcare demands for innovative technologies. Figure shows an organ specific, implant communication studies with the wearable sensor on the body. This active project led by Dr. Erchin Serpedin titled “Channel modeling and optimized radio access design for in vivo wireless communication” (NPRP 6 - 415 - 3 – 111) will help in developing new secure, reliable, energy efficient and advance implantable devices. In this image developed by Dr. Abbasi, torso area is segmented into four sectors considering the major internal organs: heart, stomach, kidneys, and intestine as shown in (left) figure. In each region, measurements are performed by rotating receiver (ex vivo) and transmitter (in vivo) together around the body with 22.5Â° angle increments (as shown in right figure). The ex vivo receiver is placed 5 cm away from the body surface and the in vivo transmitter is placed at 10 depths (10 mm to 100 mm) inside the body for each ex vivo receiver location. In addition, transmitter and receiver are placed in the same orientation in order to avoid polarization losses. Based on these measurements, a novel statistical path loss formula is introduced and anatomical region specific parameters are provided for the first time
This image is illustrative of artificial photosynthesis performed in the developed photo-electrochemical (PEC) system where a wired copper-iron-oxide catalyst is coupled with Pt electrode without any external energy input. As shown in the image, artificial leaves represent the PEC system able to convert carbon dioxide to value-added chemical (formate) in the same way as shown in the natural photosynthesis by natural leaves of tree. To approach near the natural photosynthesis, the image addressed the presence of sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide, along with use of earth-abundant elements (copper, iron) that were being taken through root of the tree. The results of the active project led by Dr. Han “Development of Advanced Solar-Powered Photoelectrochemical System for Conversion of Carbon Dioxide into Useful Fuels” (NPRP 7 - 865 - 2 – 320) show that the PEC system was able to produce formate over 1 week with 1 % of a solar-to-formate energy conversion efficiency and 90 % of selectivity without any external bias while O2 was evolved from water. Thus, this outcome will be able to provide very important information for developing the solar-powered stand-alone PEC system to effectively and economically produce the value-added chemicals from greenhouse gas that results in climate change. The image submitted here was already selected as a back-cover image of high impact journal (IF 20.5) by the Royal Society of Chemistry