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Optics research in Qatar gaining traction and entering collaborative phase
Optics research in Qatar gaining traction and entering collaborative phase

Optics research in Qatar gaining traction and entering collaborative phase

Compared to studies in the fields of biology and engineering, nonlinear dynamics might not be so obvious in terms of its worth. In reality, it is an area of physics research that permeates the natural world and a field integral to so many others. Dr. Milivoj Belic won the 2012 QNRF Research Team of the Year Award for his prolific contributions in this field, accounting for more than ten percent of Texas A&M at Qatar’s publications. His team’s specific focus is nonlinear optics, wherein they research the behavior of materials and laser light as they interact.
Brain disease links with toxic bacteria from Qatar’s deserts
Brain disease links with toxic bacteria from Qatar’s deserts

Brain disease links with toxic bacteria from Qatar’s deserts

A team of researchers is studying the ecology and toxin production of cyanobacteria, an ancient form of life that produces toxins linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s.
Optimising food demand and supply for Qatar
Optimising food demand and supply for Qatar

Optimising food demand and supply for Qatar

It will come as no surprise to anyone who regularly shops in Qatar’s supermarkets to hear that over 90% of the food on the shelves is imported from abroad, making the country extremely vulnerable to price hikes, embargoes and supply disruptions. Taking control of the food supply chain is known as ‘food security’ and it’s one of the most important challenges facing Qatar in the coming years.
That’s the view of Dr. Samsul Huda of the University of Western Sydney, Australia, who is head of a multidisciplinary international team examining how best to use Qatar’s resources to maximize domestic crop productivity within Qatar, but also looking at land purchasing and contract farming in resource-rich countries in temperate and tropical climates in Africa, Asia, and Australasia. Qatar produces only about 8-10 percent of food that it consumes, yet domestic production is significantly constrained by several factors; adverse climatic conditions, quality of soils, scarcity of irrigation water, inappropriate crop rotation, market constraints, and ineffective farming practices and subsidies.
“It’s initially a problem of perception”, explains Dr. Huda. “If you ask the average man on the street here, the response will probably be ‘there is no problem! I can get food whenever and wherever I want’”. However, when a country relies on external markets for its food, it could find itself in trouble should the exporting countries undergo instability, climatic changes, natural disasters, crop disease, or changes in political whims which mean that exports are restricted.

 

Molecular simulation keeps oil flowing at home and abroad
Molecular simulation keeps oil flowing at home and abroad

Molecular simulation keeps oil flowing at home and abroad

Hydrates are a big problem in the oil and gas processing industries. Hydrates are ice-like crystalline materials which make use the unusual environment within a pipe (high pressure and low temperature) to form on the inside of pipes used to carry hydrocarbons. They are usually composed of water molecules and ‘guest’ vapour, such as methane. These hydrate solids grow to such a size that they impede and ultimately block the flow of oil or LNG.
A group working at Texas A&M University at Qatar (TAMUQ) and led by Dr. Ioannis Economou, has gone back to basics to try and solve this problem, by using computational molecular dynamics. Theoretical concepts are applied to various molecules and mixtures of molecules, then supercomputers predict how these molecules and mixtures may perform at various temperatures and pressures within a pipe.
These simulations are over a timescale of hundreds of nanoseconds, which is significant at a molecular level, and can only be performed thanks to parallel processing on the high-performance computers at TAMUQ.
They found that you can prevent this formation of hydrates by knowing the temperature and pressure at which the hydrates form or melt. So if your process allows you to operate outside of this range of conditions, then the hydrates will not form. If you operate at a higher temperature, they won’t form, but if the temperature drops and the pressure increases, then they will form. Having the data and predictions allow you to know at which conditions you should operate. Not only is this useful in the hot regions of Qatar and the Middle East, it has immense practical applications in the colder conditions of the oil and gas industry of Alaska.
Raising concrete standards for oil and gas wells
Raising concrete standards for oil and gas wells

Raising concrete standards for oil and gas wells

Whenever a company finds a target to mine oil or gas, environmentalists and residents on that land throw their arms in the air. There is no disputing the potential damage these projects could cause the environment. A big reason for this is that the wells can leak. These wells are lined with pipe that is sealed by concrete. Researchers are now working on an evolutionary race between testing methods and material improvements to make leaking wells a thing of the past.

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Accessible solitary wave families of the generalized nonlocal nonlinear Schrodinger equation

Author(s): Zhong, WP (Zhong, W. -P.); Belic, M (Belic, M.); Huang, TW (Huang, T. W.); Xie, RH (Xie, R. H.)

Two-dimensional accessible solitary wave families of the generalized nonlocal nonlinear Schrodinger equation are obtained by utilizing superpositions of various single accessible solitary solutions. Specific values of soliton parameters are selected as initial conditions and the superposition of known single solitary solutions in the highly nonlocal regime are launched into the nonlocal nonlinear medium with a Gaussian response function, to obtain novel numerical solitary solutions of improved stability. Our results reveal that in nonlocal media with the Gaussian response the higher-order spatial accessible solitary families can exist in various forms, such as asymmetric necklace, asymmetric fractional, and symmetric multipolar necklace solitons.


Source:  EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL D, 59 (2): 301-304 AUG 2010
Language:  English
Document Type:  Article
KeyWords Plus:  VORTEX BEAM; SOLITONS; MEDIA
Addresses:  [Zhong, W. -P.] Shunde Polytech, Dept Elect Engn, Shunde 528300, Guangdong, Peoples R China; [Belic, M.; Huang, T. W.] Texas A&M Univ Qatar, Doha 23874, Qatar; [Xie, R. H.] Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Dept Appl Phys, Xian 710049, Peoples R China
Reprint Address:  Zhong, WP, Shunde Polytech, Dept Elect Engn, Shunde 528300, Guangdong, Peoples R China.
Funding Agency:  Science Research Foundation of Shunde Polytechnic, China - NPRP
Publisher:  SPRINGER
Publisher Address:  233 SPRING ST, NEW YORK, NY 10013 USA
ISSN:  1434-6060
29-char Source Abbrev.:  EUR PHYS J D
ISO Source Abbrev.:  Eur. Phys. J. D
Subject Category:  Physics, Atomic, Molecular & Chemical
ISI Document Delivery No.:  624TG
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